Thin-film transistors (TFT) created using only additive process steps could create new low-cost ICs with functionalities beyond silicon, but only if we understand how to control structures at the molecular level. Thin films of conjugated polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can provide useful conductivity when the electron mobilities are controlled within as well as between molecules. In producing TFTs using such organic macromolecules, we must rigorously control the deposition and annealing processes so that the right molecules line up in the right order. Peter F. Green, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan, and his team fabricated ~55 nm thin films of P3HT using resonant-infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE), as well as conventional spin-casting. The films produced by MAPLE show a higher degree of structural disorder, with localized trap sites that reduce mobility out-of-plane by an order of magnitude compared to spin-cast films.
(Source: Peter Green, University of Michigan)
The Figure shows that despite the disorder of MAPLE-deposited P3HT, enhanced carrier density at the dielectric interface allows TFTs to exhibit similar in-plane mobilities to those built using conventionally spin-coated films. TFTs were top-contact, bottom-gate designs on 300nm thermal oxide on highly doped silicon. In-plane carrier mobilities of MAPLE-deposited versus spin-cast films were 8.3 versus 5.5 (×10 -3 cm2/V/s). In principle, the ability to independently control in- and out-of-plane mobilities allows for the fine tuning of TFT parameters for different applications. —E.K.
Last month in Nature Communications (doi:10.1038/ncomms5836) IBM researchers Jeehwan Kim, et al. published “Principle of direct van der Waals epitaxy of single-crystalline films on epitaxial graphene.” They show the ability to grow sheets of graphene on the surface of 100mm-diameter SiC wafers, the further abilitity to grow epitaxial single-crystalline films such as 2.5-μm-thick GaN on the graphene, the even greater ability to then transfer the grown GaN film to any arbitrary substrate, and the complete proof-of-manufacturing-concept of using this to make blue LEDs.
The figure above shows the basic process flow. The graphenized-SiC wafer can be re-used to grow additional transferrable epi layers. This could certainly lead to competition for the Leti/Soitec/ST “SmartCut” approach to layer-transfer using hydrogen implants into epi layers.
No mention is made of the kinetics of growing 100mm-diameter sheets of single-crystalline GaN on graphene. Supplemental information in the online article mentions 1 hour at 1250°C to cover the full wafer, but the thickness grown in that time is not mentioned. From first principles of materials engineering, they must either:
A) Go slow at first to avoid independent islands growing to form a multicrystalline layer, or
B) Initially grow a multicrystalline layer and then zone anneal (perhaps using a scanned laser) to transform it into a single-crystal.
In either case, we would expect that after just a few single-crystalline atomic layers had been either slowly grown or annealed, that a 2nd much-higher speed epi process would be used to grow the remain microns of material. More details can be seen in the EETimes write up.