Chip-Scale Packages (CSP) continue to be in strong demand for IC needing the smallest form-factors for applications including automotive, industrial applications to mobile phones and wearable electronics, according to leading market research firm TechSearch International. TechSearch’s latest CSP market forecast shows a 8% CAGR from 2015 to 2020, despite a slowing growth rate for smartphones.
One of the categories with the strongest growth is the quad flat no-lead (QFN) package with a CAGR of 8.6%. QFNs are a low-cost, low-profile package found in a wide range of products from automotive and power devices. An analysis of the Out-Sourced Assembly and Test (OSAT) market in China provides insight into expansion plans and market shares.
Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packages (FO-WLP) with many variations are now winning slots in many new mobile devices. New advanced packages such as JCAP’s FO-WLP are highlighted in the latest Advanced Packaging Update, along with the use of TSMC’s FO-WLP for Apple’s A10 application processor. The report also examines trends in stacked die CSPs, laminate-substrate CSPs, and package-on-package (PoP) with a market forecast for each. See: http//www.techsearchinc.com.
On-chip metal interconnects limit IC speed in many advanced design today, and with signal delay proportional to the product of the resistance (R) of wires and the capacitance (C) of dielectric insulation, wires with R lower than that of copper (Cu) metal would significantly improve IC performance. We know of superconductors—materials with zero resistance to electrical current flow—but only at “critical temperature” (Tc) well below 77°K, and so there has been an ongoing quest by scientists to find a material with Tc above room temperature of 298°K.
Sadly, after 4 years and nearly 1000 materials tested, a team of 6 Japanese research groups led by Hideo Hosono from the Tokyo Institute of Technology found no room temperature superconductors. They did find 100 previously unknown superconductors with Tc <56°K, and they published crystal structures and phase diagrams of all materials studied to help other researchers avoid now known dead-ends (DOI: 10.1088/1468-6996/16/3/033503).
Other researchers continue to explore the possibilities of using one-dimensional (1D) carbon-based materials such as carbon-nano-tubes (CNT) or graphene as on-chip conductors. So far, there are extreme difficulties in controlling the growth of such 1D structures within interconnect patterns, and additional challenges with forming ohmic contacts between CNT and Cu lines across billions of connections in a modern IC. More science is seemingly needed to find new paths before the engineers can explore those paths to find better solutions. Meanwhile…for the next few years at least…expect Cu metal to be the continued choice for nearly all multi-level metal interconnects on chip.
As reported in more detail at Solid State Technology, during the IEEE IITC now happening in Grenoble, imec and Lam showed a new Electroless Deposition (ELD) cobalt (Co) process that is claimed to provide void-free bottoms-up pre-filling of vias and contacts. The unit-process is intended to be integrated into flows to produce scaled interconnects for logic and DRAM ICs at the 7nm node and below. Co-incidentally at IITC this year, imec and Lam also presented on a new ELD copper (Cu) process for micron-plus-scale through-silicon vias (TSV).
The bulk resistivities of metals commonly used in IC fabrication are as follows (E-8 Ω⋅m):
Cu – 1.70,
Al – 2.74,
W – 5.3, and
Co – 5.8.
Of course, the above values for bulk materials assume minimal influence of grain sizes and boundary layers. However, in scaled on-chip interconnect structures using in today’s advanced ICs, the resistivity is dominated by grain-boundaries and interfacial materials. Consequently, the resistivity of vias in 7nm node and beyond interconnects may be similar for Cu and Co depending upon the grain-sizes and barrier layers.
The melting temperatures of these metals are as follows (°C):
Al – 660,
Cu – 1084,
Co – 1495, and
W – 3400.
With higher melting temperature compared to Cu, Co contacts/plugs would provide some of the thermal stability of W to allow for easier integration of transistors and interconnects. Seemingly, the main reason to use Co instead of W is that the latter requires CVD processing that intrinsically does not allow for bottom-up deposition.