In the late ‚Äė80s and ‚Äė90s, when our magazine staff gathered for dinner we often made a toast: ‚ÄúHere‚Äôs to chip silicon!‚ÄĚ I really believed (and still do) that making electronics more affordable would increase their use and make our lives better and the world a better place to be.
I haven‚Äôt toasted to cheap silicon for a while. Why? Because that mission has been accomplished.
At SEMI‚Äôs ISS, Paul Farrar, manager of the G450C consortium put the industry progress over the last 40+ years in perspective. ‚Äú1 Megabyte of memory in 1970 was $750,000. It was sold as an IBM add-on,‚ÄĚ he said. ‚ÄúThe great technology was made of 57mm wafers, five masking levels, and one level of metal. Today, it‚Äôs is less than a penny. That is a 100 million X improvement.‚ÄĚ ¬†
Of course, most people would like to see this trend continue, but it‚Äôs highly unlikely that we‚Äôll see such dramatic progress. Scaling is getting too expensive. The transition to 450mm looks feasible from a technical standpoint (see my column on pg. 10) but it‚Äôs not yet clear if it will be less expensive than 300mm, particularly when you factor in 450mm lithography.¬†
So if the scaling mission is accomplished, what‚Äôs next? There‚Äôs exploding interest in the ‚ÄúInternet of Things‚ÄĚ where almost everything is tagged and connected. That will require some big upgrades in the server/network infrastructure, but that can be done with existing technology. It will also require inexpensive sensors and wireless communication. By some estimates, the technology to achieve that is not ready. We need about a 10X improvement in price/performance. Ditto for wearable electronics and a whole host of applications in medical, automotive and the smart grid.
In the future, perhaps electronics will be printed like potato chip bags on roll-to-roll machines with ink-jet-like deposition of materials. Perhaps tiny MEMS with integrated sensors, thin-film batteries, energy harvesting, microprocessors and other functions will be produced for less than a penny. Perhaps everyone will have inexpensive body area networks embedded in their clothing that constantly monitor their health.
It‚Äôs all possible, but it will take some innovation in processing equipment and materials.